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伤口【名词】伤,负伤,创伤;损害,损伤;屈辱;苦痛;(诗)恋爱的痛苦; 【及物动词】伤,伤害(人、感情等)


an injury or damage, usually restricted to those caused by physical means with disruption of normal continuity of structures. Called also injury and trauma. blowing wound open pneumothorax. contused wound one in which the skin is unbroken. wound drain any device by which a channel or open area may be established for the exit of material from a wound or cavity. wound healing restoration of integrity to injured tissues by replacement of dead tissue with viable tissue; this starts immediately after an injury, may continue for months or years, and is essentially the same for all types of wounds. Variations are the result of differences in location, severity of the wound, extent of injury to the tissues, the age, nutritional status, and general state of health of the patient, and available body reserves and resources for tissue regeneration.The repair of damaged cells and tissue takes place by regeneration, in which structures are replaced by proliferation of similar cells, such as happens with skin and bone; and by formation of a scar, consisting of fibrous structures with some degree of contraction. Since most wounds extend to more than one type of tissue, complete regeneration is impossible; therefore, scar formation is an expected outcome of wound healing.In healing by first intention (primary union), restoration of tissue continuity occurs directly, without granulation; in healing by second intention (secondary union), wound repair following tissue loss (as in ulceration) is accomplished by closure of the wound with granulation tissue. This tissue is formed by proliferation of fibroblasts and extensive capillary budding at the outer edges and base of the wound cavity, with slow extension from the base and sides of the wound toward its center. If, however, the wound is very deep and extensive, granulation tissue cannot fill the defect and grafting may be needed to cover the space and avoid severe contracture and loss of function. healing by third intention (delayed primary closure) occurs when a wound is initially too contaminated to close and is closed surgically 4 or 5 days after the injury. (

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