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epinephrine

epinephrine
肾上腺素

Definitions

a hormone produced by the adrenal medulla; called also adrenaline (British). Its function is to aid in the regulation of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. At times when a person is highly stimulated, as by fear, anger, or some challenging situation, extra amounts of epinephrine are released into the bloodstream, preparing the body for energetic action. Epinephrine is a powerful vasopressor that increases blood pressure and increases the heart rate and cardiac output. It also increases glycogenolysis and the release of glucose from the liver, so that a person has a suddenly increased feeling of muscular strength and aggressiveness.ƒSome disorders of the adrenal glands, such as addison's disease, reduce the output of epinephrine below normal. By contrast, excessive activity of those glands, as sometimes seen in highly emotional persons, tends to produce tenseness, palpitation, high blood pressure, perhaps diarrhea, and overaggressiveness. Certain adrenal tumors also result in the production of too much epinephrine. Removal of the tumor relieves symptoms.Epinephrine is also produced synthetically and can be administered parenterally, topically, or by inhalation. It acts as a vasoconstrictor, antispasmodic, and sympathomimetic, and it is used as an emergency heart stimulant as well as to relieve symptoms in allergic conditions such as urticaria (hives), asthma, and other conditions requiring bronchodilation and as a adjunct to local and regional anesthesia. It is the most effective drug for counteracting the lethal effects of anaphylactic shock. It is also used topically in the eye in the treatment of glaucoma.
A catecholamine that is the chief neurohormone of the adrenal medulla of most species; also secreted by certain neurons. The l-isomer is the most potent stimulant (sympathomimetic) of adrenergic α- and β-receptors, resulting in increased heart rate and force of contraction, vasoconstriction or vasodilation, relaxation of bronchiolar and intestinal smooth muscle, glycogenolysis, lipolysis, and other metabolic effects; used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, acute allergic disorders, open-angle glaucoma, cardiac arrest, and heart block, and as a topical and local vasoconstrictor. Generally used salts are epinephrine hydrochloride and epinephrine bitartrate, the latter most frequently used in topical preparations.
A catecholamine that is the chief neurohormone of the adrenal medulla of most species; also secreted by certain neurons. The l-isomer is the most potent stimulant (sympathomimetic) of adrenergic α- and β-receptors, resulting in increased heart rate and force of contraction, vasoconstriction or vasodilation, relaxation of bronchiolar and intestinal smooth muscle, glycogenolysis, lipolysis, and other metabolic effects; used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, acute allergic disorders, open-angle glaucoma, cardiac arrest, and heart block, and as a topical and local vasoconstrictor. Generally used salts are epinephrine hydrochloride and epinephrine bitartrate, the latter most frequently used in topical preparations. Synonym(s): adrenaline
A catecholamine that is the chief neurohormone of the adrenal medulla of most species; also secreted by certain neurons. The l-isomer is the most potent stimulant (sympathomimetic) of adrenergic α- and β-receptors, resulting in increased heart rate and force of contraction, vasoconstriction or vasodilation, relaxation of bronchiolar and intestinal smooth muscle, glycogenolysis, lipolysis, and other metabolic effects; used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, acute allergic disorders, open-angle glaucoma, cardiac arrest, and heart block, and as a topical and local vasoconstrictor. Generally used salts are epinephrine hydrochloride and epinephrine bitartrate, the latter most frequently used in topical preparations. Synonym(s): adrenaline [epi- + G. nephros, kidney, + -ine]
1. A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress, as from fear or injury. It initiates many bodily responses, including the stimulation of heart action and an increase in blood pressure, metabolic rate, and blood glucose concentration. Also called adrenaline. 2. A white to brownish crystalline compound, C9H13NO3, isolated from the adrenal glands of certain mammals or synthesized and used in medicine as a heart stimulant, vasoconstrictor, and bronchial relaxant.





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