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Bill Gates Favors U.S. Drug Pricing System


Bloomberg - June 30, 2016 前微软CEO比尔•盖茨支持有利于推广现代医学, 抗击贫困所致疾病的体系。 Former Microsoft CEO supports system that spreads modern medicine and fights diseases of the poor.

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Bill Gates, Former CEO, Microsoft; Chairman, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation: Vaccines have still been the tool that's saved the most lives. And even today, inventing new vaccines for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), malaria, TB (tuberculosis), RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), a number of these diseases that are still out [there], literally killing millions of people, that's a top priority for us, because it's a magical intervention.
Erik Schatzker, Anchor, Bloomberg: And other areas like gene therapies, for example, or gene editing, how much promise do you think they have relative to the perhaps easier work - I hesitate to say it that way - but that can be done in vaccine development?
BG: Well, gene editing is such a basic tool, and it's going to pervade all the work in the biological sciences. I mean, those tools, even for diagnosis, doing gene knockouts to understand disease models, you really can't understate what a great set of tools there are. In a drug sense, where our [Bill & Melinda Gates] Foundation sees them, we see them in our plant and animal work, because it will speed up better plants, help on animal disease, and there, the regulatory pathways are complex, but not as hard as human disease. For mosquitoes, this is a superior system to affect either mosquito populations that are carrying the virus. And, for something like HIV/AIDS, it's possible, although there's a lot of hurdles, that you could do gene editing to cure somebody from the disease, which...that would be fantastic since we don't have a cure, we just have lifelong treatment. So, I see it in so many of the different foundation programs.
ES: Many of the most advanced remedies are awfully expensive to develop, and as you know, the companies behind them are incentivized to generate the maximum profit possible. I am, of course, thinking of things like Valeant and Turing, but also the price of Hep C treatments and immunotherapy and blood disease drugs. What, in your mind, is the best way to control cost so these medicines and treatments aren't just available to the rich and the well-insured?
BG: Well, I actually think the current system, despite some extreme cases that I think have properly been labeled as "inappropriate", I think the current system is better than most other systems one can imagine. I mean, curing hepatitis C (HCV), this is a phenomenal thing. And now, you have multiple drug companies competing in terms of the quality and the price they have offering. The drug companies are turning out miracles, and we need their R&D budgets to stay strong. They need to see the opportunity. For things like Alzheimer's, they can reduce medical costs so dramatically and improve the human condition, and the pharmaceutical companies have been great partners of our foundation. When we need help in doing science, they're unique in what they can do. Also, they're very good about tiered pricing. I mean, if you take Hep C as an example - and all the responsible companies do this - they, for the poor countries, have an approach that wasn't oriented towards them making money, just driving access. So, tiered pricing is often the way that you can square the idea that access and being able to fund new miracles, you really want both.

  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    Alzheimer's disease 阿兹海默氏症;也称脑退化症;阿兹海默症;老年痴呆症
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    anchor 【名词】1. 锚;新闻主播 2. 桩; 支架; 依靠; 【不及物动词】1. 抛锚; 2. 停泊;固定; 【及物动词】1. 抛锚泊(船); 2. 把…固定住
  • animal disease 动物疾病
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    billing 计费【名词】1. (节目单、剧院门口华盖等上的)演员表; 2. (演员表上的)演员名次
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    biological 【形】生物的;生物学的 【名词】 生物制剂
  • biological science 生物科学
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    blood 血液【名词】1. 血,血液;生命液; 2. 血族,血统;种族;家族(关系);家世;门第;名门,门阀;贵族血统; 3. 生命,活力;元气; 4. 流血,杀戮,杀人(罪),牺牲; 5. 血气;气质,气性,脾气;热情;激怒;肉欲;兽欲; 6. (主英)血气方刚的人;花花公子,纨袴子; 7. (集合词)人员; 8. (树木、果子等的)赤色汁液;(美俚)蕃茄酱; 9. (马的)纯种
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    blood disease 血液病
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    budget 预算 【名词】1. 预算,预算案。; 2. 经营费;生活费;(有限制的)供应,来源。; 3. (古语)(方言)小皮包;小皮包中的东西。; 4. (比喻)(书信等的)一束,一捆;(要闻)汇编(作报名用)。; 预算 【及物动词】1. 把…编入预算;按预算来安排(生活、工程等)。; 预算 【不及物动词】1. 编预算。; 2. 作好安排。
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    Chairman 主席,会长;董事长 ★可男女兼用,称呼时可说作 Mr. Chairman 和 Madame Chairman.
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    compete 竞争【不及物动词】1. 竞争 (with; in); 比得上,及得上;匹敌; 2. 比赛
  • complex 【名词】复合物; 合成物; 复合体 【形容词】合成的; 复合的; 复杂的
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    conditioning 调理
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    control costs 控制成本;控制费用
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    controlling costs 控制成本;控制费用
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    cure 【名词】1. 治疗;治愈,[临床] 疗法 2. 治疗用剂;(有疗效的)药 3. (橡胶的)硫化,固化 4. (鱼等)用腌、熏、晒、烤等加工处理【及物动词】1. 治愈,治疗 2. 消除,改正;矫正
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    diagnosis 1. 诊断; 诊断方法 2. 诊断结论 3. 调查分析 【生物学】(分类学上的)特征简述
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    disease 【名词】1. 病,疾病;【植物】病害 2. (精神等的)病态,弊病 3. (酒等的)变质;(食物等的)腐败
  • drive access 推动(药物)利用
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    drug company 制药公司
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    drugged 【及物动词】用药麻醉;使服药;使服毒品
  • Extracting Microarray Gene Expression Patterns and Identifying co-expressed Genes 提取微阵列基因表达模式和确认共表达基因◆【略】EPIG
  • extreme case 极端情况下,
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    former CEO 前首席执行官◆ Chief Executive Officer
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    foundation 【名词】1. 创设,创立 2. 基础,根本;根据;地基 3. 基金(会);慈善机关
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    fund 基金【名词】1. 资金,基金,专款; 2. (国家的)财源;(英国)公债; 3. 存款,现款; 4. 储备,蕴藏; 5. 特别基金管理机构; 【及物动词】1. 换(短期借款)为长期公债; 2. (英国)投(资金)于公债; 3. 把…列作为基金[专款]; 4. 为…提供基金,储存(一笔钱款)以资生息
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    gene 基因【名词】【生物学】基因; dominant gene 显性基因
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    gene editing 基因编辑
  • gene knockout 基因敲除
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    gene therapy 基因治疗; 基因疗法
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    hepatitis 肝炎【名词】
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    hepatitis C 丙型肝炎
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    hep[atitis] C 丙型肝炎◆ HCV
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    human condition 人类的状况
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    human disease 人类疾病
  • human immunodeficiency 人类免疫缺陷
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    human immunodeficiency virus 人类免疫缺陷病毒; 即艾滋病毒HIV◆【略】HIV
  • human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome 艾滋病毒/艾滋病◆【略】HIV/AIDS
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    hurdle 障碍【名词】1. 疏篱,树枝编成的篱笆; 2. (赛马或赛跑用)栏架,跳栏; 3. 【化学】栅格; 4. 障碍,困难; 5. 【历史】(送犯人到刑场的雪橇状)囚笼,囚车; 【及物动词】1. 用疏篱围住; 2. 跳过(栏); 3. 突破(难关); 【不及物动词】跳栏;跨越障碍
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    immunodeficiency 免疫缺陷
  • immunodeficiency virus 免疫缺陷病毒
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    immunotherapy 免疫治疗【名词】免疫疗法
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    incentivize 【及物动词】对…实行物质刺激,以物质刺激鼓励
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    insured 被保险人【名词】 the insured 被保险人,受保户; 【及物动词】 1. 保险,给…保险; 2. 保障,为…提供保证; 【不及物动词】 投保,承保
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    intervention 干预【名词】1. 插进,介入; 2. 调解,排解; 3. 干涉,干预,妨碍
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    labeling 标签;标记;标号
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    literally 【副词】1. 照字义;逐字地 2. 实际地;确实地 3. [口语]差不多;简直
  • magical intervention 神奇的介入方式
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    malaria 【名词】 疟疾;瘴气
  • maximum profit 最大的利润
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    medical cost 医疗费用
  • miracle 奇迹【名词】神迹,奇迹般,神奇
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    mosquito population 蚊子种群
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    multiple 多个【名词】1. 【数学】倍数; 2. 【电学】并联;多路系统; 3. 相联成组; 4. 成批生产的艺术品(画、雕塑、工艺品等); 【形容词】1. 多重的;复合的; 2. 倍数的,倍; 3. 【电学】并联的;多路的,复接的; 4. 【植物学】聚花的
  • multiple drugs 多种药物
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    offering 提供【名词】1. 提议;提供; 2. 贡献;供品,祭品,(给教会的)捐款; 3. 礼物; 4. (上市的)股票,公债;出售物; 5. 课程
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    opportunity 机会【名词】机遇,契机,时机,良机,商机
  • orient 面向【及物动词】导向,定向,为主
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    pathway 途径;路径;通路
  • pervade 渗透【及物动词】
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    pharmaceutical 医药【名词】药物; 【形容词】1. 制药(学)上的; 2. 药剂师的; 3. 应用药物的
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    pharmaceutical company 制药公司
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    phenomenon 现象 【名词】1. 现象; 事件; 2. 稀有现象;奇迹;珍奇;珍品;非凡的人; 3. 症候
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    population 1.【生物学】群体;种群;族;组;2. 人口; 全体居民 3. 【数学】总体,全域
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    priority 优先【名词】优先级,优先权,优先考虑,优先事项,优先次序,当务之急,重点,首要
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    profit 利润【名词】1. 赢余,利润,赚头; 利润率; 2. 红利; 3. 得益,益处;【及物动词】有利于,有益于;【不及物动词】得益;获利,赚钱;利用 (by from of) 有用
  • promising 【形容词】有前途的;有希望的;有指望的
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    regulatory 管理的;控制的;调整的
  • regulatory pathway 调节通路;调控途径
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    relatives 【名词】亲戚,亲属
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    remedy 【名词】补救,治疗;【法律】补救措 施,赔偿,补偿;【及物动词】补救,治疗,纠正
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    respiratory 呼吸的【形容词】呼吸道的,呼吸系统的
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    respiratory syncytial virus 呼吸道合胞体病毒◆【略】RSV
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    setting 【名词】1. 设置; 设定; 安装 2. 环境;背景; 布置
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    speed 加速【及物动词】加速;催促,促进;【不及物动词】速度增加
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    speed up (使)加速
  • square the idea 逻辑地权衡;协调思路
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    syncytial 合胞体的
  • syncytial virus 合胞病毒
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    therapy 【名词】疗法;疗效
  • tiered pricing 分级定价;分层计价;阶梯计价
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    top priority 当务之急
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    treatment 【名词】1. 治疗;疗法;疗程 2. 对待;处理 3.评述
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    tuberculosis 肺结核【名词】结核病;(特指)肺结核◆【略】TB
  • understate 低估了【及物动词】低估
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    unique 独特的
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    vaccine 疫苗【名词】1. 疫苗,牛痘苗;菌苗; 2. 【计算机】免疫程序软件,抗病毒软件
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    vaccine development 疫苗开发
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    virus 病毒【名词】1. 病毒 2. (病毒引起的)病毒病 3.毒液; 恶意,恶毒 4.计算机病毒
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