Wechat logo 50 41 d4bae92fc2b9067675bfee08d2b00834882415940f50456376420c2e77a679ac
返回

Why Are U.S. Drug Prices So High?


Bloomberg News - June 29, 2016 全国性医药费用辩论探究处方药定价机制背后的诱因。 National debate explores causes behind prescription drug pricing mechanics.

点击高亮查看翻译

Drew Armstrong, Reporter, Bloomberg: So, you might remember last year when a drug company raised the price of its drug by 5,000%.
Betty Liu, Anchor, Bloomberg: The reaction, particularly when you read the papers today, has been quite critical of this move. So, why?
Martin Shkreli, Former CEO, Turing Pharmaceuticals: Well, you know, we needed to turn a profit on the drug.
DA: That's Martin Shkreli, the former CEO (Chief Executive Officer) of Turing Pharmaceuticals. He bought an old drug called Daraprim (pyrimethamine), which treats life-threatening diseases in HIV patients, and overnight raised the price from $13.50 a pill to $750. That caused outrage. Hillary Clinton tweeted about price gouging. Biotech stocks dropped into a bear market. And even PhRMA (Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America), the industry's lobby group in Washington, distanced itself from Turing. But raising prices is actually pretty common in the industry. Take Merck's Januvia (sitagliptin). Millions of Americans use it to treat diabetes. When Merck started selling the pill in 2006, it cost about $146 a month. By 2011, it was $213 a month. Now, 30 days worth of Januvia costs at least $370, more than twice what it did when Merck started selling it. Adjust for inflation and we're still seeing a massive increase. Novartis raised the price of its cancer drug Gleevec (imatinib) from $31,930 a year in 2001, to about $118,000 a year in 2015. And Pfizer raised prices on at least 133 of its drugs last year. So, why do drug prices keep going up? For one, drugmakers say R&D is risky and expensive. The industry spent more than $50 billion on R&D in 2014. And most drugs fail somewhere between the test tube and the many clinical trials the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) requires before a medicine is OK'd for sale to the public. For the drugs that do get approved, on average, they have about 12 years of dominance before cheap generics come on the market and create competition. Since the U.S. doesn't regulate drug prices, pharmaceutical companies try to make as much profit as they can before those generics come to market. In fact, Pfizer made about a billion dollars more from mid-2012 to mid-2014, just because of price increases on their drugs. In the case of Turing, Shkreli was kicked out, and in November, the company said it would cut the price of the drug by as much as 50% for some hospitals. But at a congressional hearing in March, one doctor who treats patients needing the drug, said she was still having difficulty getting it at an affordable price. Turing is an extreme example, but the reality is drug companies have been doing it for years, and aren't likely to change.

  • adjust for inflation 根据通胀进行调整
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    administration 【名词】1. 管理,经营;行政 2. 行政机关,局[处、署];(A- 主美)政府; 3. 给与;施行; 4. 给药,(药的)服法; 5. 【军事】后方勤务; 6. 【法律】施行,执行
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    affordable 负担得起的;价格实惠的
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    affordable price 负担得起的价格
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    anchor 【名词】1. 锚;新闻主播 2. 桩; 支架; 依靠; 【不及物动词】1. 抛锚; 2. 停泊;固定; 【及物动词】1. 抛锚泊(船); 2. 把…固定住
  • bear market 【证券】熊市,行情看跌市场
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    biotech 生物技术【名词】生物工艺学
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    biotech stock 生物技术股
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    cancer 癌症【名词】1. 癌症;癌(瘤),肿瘤; 2. 弊病;社会恶习; 3. (the C-)【天文学】巨蟹座;巨蟹宫
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    cancer drug 抗癌药物
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    Chief Executive Officer 首席执行官;执行总裁◆CEO
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    clinical 临床【形容词】疗效,临床医学
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    clinical trial 临床试验
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    competition 竞争【名词】1. 竞争; 2. 比赛,竞赛; 3. 【生物学】生存竞争
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    congressional 国会【形容词】会议的;委员会的;(C-)(美国)国会的
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    congressional hearing 国会听证会
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    critical 【形容词】1.关键性的,决定性的 2. 危险的,危急的;严重的 3. 批判的,批评的 4. 吹毛求疵的;爱挑剔别人的 (of, about)【医学】危象的;极期的 【数,物】临界的
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    cutting 切割【名词】1. 切断,切下;切片;【园艺】扦插,插条;(英国)剪裁,(报纸等的)剪辑;(宝石等的)加工,琢磨,开凿; 2. 大贱卖;剧烈的竞争; 3. 【林业】采伐;【畜牧】剪毛; 4. (马的)互踢; 5. 【机械工程】切削; 【形容词】1. 切得动的,锐利的; 2. 像刀割似的;刺骨的; 3. 讽刺的,尖酸刻薄的; 4. (目光)炯炯的,敏锐的; 5. (俚语)卖得贱的
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    diabetes 糖尿病【名词】1. 糖尿病 (diabetes mellitus); 2. 尿崩症 (diabetes insipidus)
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    disease 【名词】1. 病,疾病;【植物】病害 2. (精神等的)病态,弊病 3. (酒等的)变质;(食物等的)腐败
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    dominance 优势【名词】统治地位,支配地位,显性,霸主地位,支配,统治,主导,占主导地位,主宰
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    drawing 绘图【名词】1. 延引,牵引;引诱; 2. 抽签;拈阄; 3. 【机械工程】拔丝;冲压成形; 4. 描画,制图;图,图形;素描;图画; 5. 【纺织;印染】练条;回火,退火; 6. (支票等的)开发,付给;售得金额
  • drug administration 药品监督管理; 给药; 服药
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    drug company 制药公司
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    drug price 药品价格
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    drugged 【及物动词】用药麻醉;使服药;使服毒品
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    drugmaker 制药公司
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    executive 【名词】1. 行政部门;行政官;执行委员会; 2. 【美商】总经理,董事; 【形容词】1. 执行的,实行的,实施的,有执行权力[手腕]的;行政(上)的; 2. 行政官的;总经理的
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    executive officer 主管人员
  • Extracting Microarray Gene Expression Patterns and Identifying co-expressed Genes 提取微阵列基因表达模式和确认共表达基因◆【略】EPIG
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    former CEO 前首席执行官◆ Chief Executive Officer
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    generic 【名词】仿制药; 【形容词】1. 【生物学】属的,类的; 2. 一般的,普通的; 3. (商品)未注册的;不受商标注册保护的; 4. 【语法】全称的,总称的
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    generics come on 仿制药进入市场
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    Gleevec 格列卫(治疗恶性肿瘤的细胞信号转导抑制剂)◆【通用名称】imatinib mesylate
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    gouge 凿击【名词】1. 凿,圆凿; 2. (美口)圆凿工艺;圆槽,凿孔;【地质学;地理学】断层泥; 3. (美口)欺诈;骗子; 【及物动词】1. 用圆凿打(眼); 2. 用大拇指抠出(眼珠子); 3. (美口)欺诈
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    hearing 聆讯 【名词】1. 听(动作或过程); 2. 听力,听觉; 3. 发言机会; 4. 审问; 5. 听得见的范围; 6. 意见听取会
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    HIV patient 艾滋病毒感染者◆ human immunodeficiency virus
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    hospital 医院【名词】院,住院
  • imatinib 伊马替尼
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    immunosuppressive drug 免疫抑制药
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    industry 行业【名词】1. 勤劳,勤奋,刻苦; 2. 工业,产业,实业,事业; 3. (集合词)资方; 4. 有组织的劳动,经常的工作[努力]
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    inflation 通胀【名词】1. 膨胀; 2. 【经济学】通货膨胀;信用膨胀;(物价)暴涨; 3. 自负;夸张; 4. 【工业】(气体、空气的)补给,打气,充气,胀气
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    Januvia 西他列汀(治疗控制不佳的2型糖尿病)
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    life-threatening 威胁生命的
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    life-threatening disease 危及生命的疾病
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    lobby 【名词】 1. 门厅,门廊,前厅,议院走廊; 2. 游说集团;【及物动词】对……进行游说;【不及物动词】 游说议员
  • lobby group 游说团体
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    manufacturer 【名词】制造商; 生产厂家; 制造者
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    massive 大规模【形容词】1. 大的,重的; 2. 魁伟的;结实的;实心的; 3. 大规模的;大量的; 4. (容貌、精神等)有力的,坚定的;【心理学】宽大的; 5. 【地质学;地理学】块状的,大块的; 6. 【矿物】均匀构造的,非晶质的
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    on average 平均;通常
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    on the market 出售
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    outrage 愤怒【名词】1. 暴举,暴行; 2. 强奸,凌辱; 3. 严重违法; 4. 义愤,痛恨; 【及物动词】1. 伤害;虐待,迫害; 2. 凌辱,强奸; 3. 违反;犯(法);引起…的义愤
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    pharmaceutical 医药【名词】药物; 【形容词】1. 制药(学)上的; 2. 药剂师的; 3. 应用药物的
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    pharmaceutical company 制药公司
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    pharmaceutical research 药物研究
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America 美国药物研究和生产商联合会◆【略】PhRMA
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    pill 丸【1名词】1. 丸,药丸; (the birth control pill/the pill) (女用口服)避孕丸; 2. 讨厌的东西[人];苦事; 3. (俚语)炮弹,子弹;球;(pl.)(英俚)撞球战,弹子战; 4. (美俚)香烟;切去两端的雪茄烟;(鸦片)烟泡; 5. 投票用小球; 6. 【农业】粒肥;【及物动词】1. 把…作成丸药;给…吃丸药; 2. (俚语)投票反对;排斥;不录取;开除;【及物动词】(古语)抢劫,掠夺
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    price gouging 哄抬物价; 价格欺骗
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    price increase 价格上涨; 价格的提高
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    profit 利润【名词】1. 赢余,利润,赚头; 利润率; 2. 红利; 3. 得益,益处;【及物动词】有利于,有益于;【不及物动词】得益;获利,赚钱;利用 (by from of) 有用
  • pyrimethamine 乙胺嘧啶
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    regulate 【及物动词】1.管制;控制;规定 2. 调节;调整 3.校准(钟表等);使规律化
  • sitagliptin 西他列汀
  • test tube 试管;试管试验
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    the public 整体公共;广大市民;公众;大众
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    threaten 威胁【及物动词】1. 恐吓,恫吓,威胁; 2. 预示凶兆,有…的危险; 【不及物动词】像要发生;快要来临
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    treated patient 治疗的患者
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    tubing 【名词】1. 装管,配管,制管; 2. 管道(系统);管料; 3. 管的一部分; 4. (集合词)管类
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    Washington 华盛顿 (特指华盛顿的政治圈)◆ Washington, D.C. (District of Columbia)
Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615