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New Drug-proof Superbug Hits U.S.


PBS NewsHour - May 26, 2016 CDC正在寻求对应最后一线抗生素耐药性E. coli菌株的方法。 CDC is seeking ways to fight last-resort antibiotic-resistant E. coli strain.

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Hari Sreenivasan, Anchor, PBS NewsHour: But first, a sobering new development with superbugs, and public health concerns about the limited effect of antibiotics. For the first time in the U.S., a person has been found to be carrying a strain of E. coli that's resistant to antibiotics of last resort. The Washington Post reported the strain was discovered last month in a 49-year-old Pennsylvania woman. She was resistant to colistin (polymyxin E) and researchers said it, quote, "heralds the emergence of a truly pan-drug-resistant bacteria." Dr. Beth Bell is with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is now working with Pennsylvania officials. She's the Director of the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Thanks for joining us. First, what is so distinct about these findings?
Dr. Beth Bell, Director, NCEZID, CDC: Colistin is an antibiotic that we've actually had for quite a long time, but we use it as a last line, so it's our drug of last resort. And so, when patients are infected with some of these superbugs that we've talked about before, where the strain is resistant to pretty much every antibiotic, we rely on colistin as the last resort. And what we find here in this patient - the bacteria that infected this patient - is that her strain contains one of these mobile genes that confers resistance to colistin. So, because bacteria can spread these mobile genes among themselves, it sets up a situation where we can see a bacteria that's resistant to every known antibiotic, and of course, that is a very frightening prospect for all of us.
HS: All right. So, when I go to the pharmacy and I'm prescribed something like azithromycin or something that's pretty low on the scale of the arsenal that doctors have, so this is the top end, there's nothing after this, that means that the patient is untreatable and that means that there's a greater chance that they might die because of this?
BB: Sure. We luckily haven't seen, actually, bacteria that are resistant to every single antibiotic here in the United States, but there are reports of this in other parts of the world, and these patients have a very high mortality rate. It's extremely difficult to treat them. And again, this raises a specter of a post-antibiotic era.
HS: All right. So, how do bugs get this strong?
BB: You know, bacteria are just really, really smart. Microbes have learned how to evolve over centuries and centuries, and they have a number of different methods for outwitting antibiotics. And, because bacteria reproduce so quickly, by chance sometimes, there will be a mutation that allows a certain strain to outwit an antibiotic, and that therefore means that that bacteria grows preferentially, and that's how these bacteria develop resistance. And so, of course, that points out the importance of using antibiotics only at the right time and the right dose, because overuse of antibiotics, of course, can spur these bacteria to develop these resistance mechanisms.
HS: What can we learn from what happened to this specific individual? Right now, it's just one person, but do we know anything about how she contracted this, or perhaps if her immune system was already suppressed?
BB: We don't know much yet about how she contracted it. It doesn't sound like she's traveled outside the United States, but we don't have the kind of really specific information that we would like. We're working directly with the Pennsylvania Department of Health right now to do that sort of in-depth investigation that will help us figure out why she might have gotten it, whether any of her household contacts also had the bacteria, and to just give us the kind of information that we need about how widespread the bacteria might be in this particular situation.
HS: Over the past several months, the CDC has been out talking about so many different types of infectious diseases. On the one hand, we had Ebola and now there's lots of concern about Zika [virus]. This is something completely different. This isn't the type of communicable disease that I can get by just being in the same room with you, right?
BB: Yeah. Well, the mode of transmission of communicable diseases varies by the bacteria, but certainly, with some of these superbug strains, we do see them transmitted especially in healthcare settings, and that's why prevention really is so important. Prevention in terms of antibiotic stewardship - using antibiotics correctly - and infection control, using the kinds of strategies that prevent environmental contamination in hospitals and spread of bacteria among patients.
HS: All right. Dr. Beth Bell from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), thanks so much!
BB: Thank you so much for having me!

  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    a number of different methods for outwitting antibiotics 有许多巧妙逃避抗生素的不同方法
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    anchor 【名词】1. 锚;新闻主播 2. 桩; 支架; 依靠; 【不及物动词】1. 抛锚; 2. 停泊;固定; 【及物动词】1. 抛锚泊(船); 2. 把…固定住
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    antibiotic 【形容词】抗菌的; 抗生作用的; 抗菌素的【名词】抗生素;抗菌素
  • antibiotic era 抗生素时代
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    antibiotic stewardship 抗生素管理工作
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    antibiotics of last resort 最后一线抗生素
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    arsenal 阿森纳【名词】1. 军械库,武器库; 2. 兵工厂; 3. (比喻)(思想等的)武库
  • azithromycin 阿奇霉素
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    bacteria 细菌【名词】1. 细菌; 2. (美俚)拳击迷
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    by chance 偶然; 意外地
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    colistin 黏菌素
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    communicable 传染性【形容词】可以传达[传授]的;(疾病)可传染的;(古语)爱说话的
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    communicable disease 传染病
  • confer 【及物动词】给予; 授予; 赐予; 【不及物动词】 磋商; 讨论; 交换意见
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    contamination 【名词】 污染,玷污;杂质, 污染物
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    contract 合同【名词】1. 契约,合同; 2. 婚约; 3. 承包(合约); 4. 【法律】契约法; 5. 【牌戏】定约,合约桥牌; 【及物动词】1. 订(约),立(合同);约定; 2. 订婚(通例用被动语态),把…许配给; 3. 结交(朋友等); 4. 招,患(病),染(恶习); 5. 负债; 【不及物动词】订约;订婚;承包
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    director 主管【名词】1. 指挥者,监督人,管理人; 总监;院长;所长;主任 2.理事,董事;经理 3. 【戏剧】导演【音乐】指挥 4. 引向器; 指示器; 导向偶极子
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    disease 【名词】1. 病,疾病;【植物】病害 2. (精神等的)病态,弊病 3. (酒等的)变质;(食物等的)腐败
  • disease control 疾病控制
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    distinct 独特的; 不同的; 明显的
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    dose 剂量【名词】1. (药的)一服,一剂;药量,剂量; 2. 苦药,讨厌的东西; 3. (酒中的)配料,增味剂; 4. (处罚等)一回,一次,一番; 5. (美俚)花柳病,梅毒; 6. 【物理学】放射[辐射]剂量
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    drug of last resort 作为最后手段的药物; 最后一线药物
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    drug-resistant 耐药性
  • drug-resistant bacteria 抗药性细菌
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    drugged 【及物动词】用药麻醉;使服药;使服毒品
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    Ebola virus 埃博拉病毒
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    emerge 出现【不及物动词】1. 出现,显露,现出; 2. (自困境等中)摆脱;脱颖而出; 3. 发生,暴露
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    emergence 出现【名词】1. 发生; 2. 【植物;植物学】突出体;(柑果的)瓤胞; 3. 【虫类】羽化; 4. 【哲学】突创论
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    environmental 环境【形容词】1. 环境的,环境产生的; 2. 环境艺术的
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    environmental contamination 环境污染
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    Escherichia coli 大肠杆菌◆【略】E.coli
  • evolve 【及物/不及物动词】发展; 演变; 进化形成
  • Extracting Microarray Gene Expression Patterns and Identifying co-expressed Genes 提取微阵列基因表达模式和确认共表达基因◆【略】EPIG
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    figure 图,图形◆【略】Fig.
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    figure out 解决;算出;想出;断定
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    finding 【名词】1.发现,发现物,调查的结果,研究结果; 2. 裁决,定罪 【动词原形】find
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    frightened 【及物动词】使恐惧, 吓坏了【不及物动词】惊恐,害怕
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    gene 基因【名词】【生物学】基因; dominant gene 显性基因
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    healthcare 医疗保健;医疗卫生;健康服务
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    healthcare setting 医疗设置
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    herald 先驱报【名词】1. (旧时的)传令官; 2. (英国中世纪司宗谱纹章的)纹章官; 3. 通报者;使者;先驱,预兆; 【及物动词】1. 传达,通告; 2. 预告,预示…的到来; 3. 欢呼
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    heralds the emergence of a truly pan-drug-resistant bacteria 预示着一个真正的泛耐药菌的出现
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    hospital 医院【名词】院,住院
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    household 家庭【名词】1. (集合词)全家人;(包含人在内的)家眷,家属,家里人;家庭,户; 2. 家务; 3. (the H-) (英国) 王室; 4. (英国) (pl.) 次等面粉; 【形容词】1. 家庭的,家内的,一家的; 2. (H-) 王室的; 3. 家常的,普通的
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    immune 免疫【形容词】1. 免疫(性)的; 2. 有免疫力的,可避免的; 3. 免除(税等)的; 4. 不受影响的
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    immune system 免疫系统
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    in-depth investigation 深入调查
  • individual rights 个人权利
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    infect 【及物动词】1. 【医学】传染,侵染,感染; 2. 使受影响,感染; 3. 使腐化
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    infection 感染【名词】1. 传染,感染,侵染; 2. 传染病,染毒物; 3. 影响;感染
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    infection control 感染控制
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    infectious 【形容词】1. 传染的,传染性的; 2. 易传染的 3. 有坏影响的,有损害的
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    infectious disease 传染病
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    investigation 调查 【名词】1. 研究,调查;审查; 2. 研究论文,调查报告
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    last resort 最后手段
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    limited effect of antibiotics 抗生素有限的效力
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    lining 衬砌【名词】衬里,内衬,衬砌结构,面料,衬板;【及物动词】衬,炉衬,衬套
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    mechanism 机制【名词】1. (机械)结构;机械装置[作用];(故事的)结构; 2. 【哲学】机械论; 3. 【文艺】手法;技巧;途径; 4. (自然现象等的)作用过程;【化学】历程; 5. 【生物学】机制,机能;【音乐】机理【心理学】作用机理
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    microbe 微生物【名词】(尤指引起疾病的) 细菌
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    mobile gene 迁移基因
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    mode of transmission 传播方式
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    mortality 死亡率【名词】死亡数;死亡率;致命性;必死的命运
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    mortality rate 死亡率
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    mutation 突变【名词】1. 变化,变异,更换;【生物学】突变;突变种;【语言学】母音变化;【音乐】(提琴的)变换把位;变声;【法律】让受; 2. (人世的)浮沉,盛衰
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    National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases 新发传染病与人畜共患传染病国家中心◆【略】NCEZID
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    official 官方 【形容词】1. 职务上的,公务上的,官员的,公的;担任官[公]职的; 2. (出自)官方的,法定的,公认的,正式的; 3. 官气十足的;讲究形式的。; 4. 依据药典(配制)的;收入药典的; 【名词】1. 官员,行政人员,高级职员; 2. 宗教法庭法官; 3. 【运】裁判
  • on one hand 一方面
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    outwit 智胜; 机敏胜过; 瞒骗
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    overuse of antibiotics 抗生素滥用
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    particular 特别是【形容词】特定,特别,特殊,特别是,尤其是,尤其,具体,个别,独特,某
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    pharmacy 药房 【名词】1. 配药学,药学; 2. 制药业; 3. 药房; 4. (一批)备用药品
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    point out 指出
  • polymyxin e 多粘菌素
  • polymyxins 多粘菌素
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    post-antibiotic era 后抗生素时代
  • preferential 【形容词】优先的,特惠的,先取的
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    prescribe 【及物动词】1. 处方;嘱咐(疗法) 2. 命令;指示;规定;限制 3. 【法律】使(过限期而)失效 【不及物动词】1. 开药方,给医嘱 2. 命令;指示;规定 3.【法律】(长期占有)要求权利;(因过期限而)失效
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    pretty low on the scale of the arsenal that doctors have 医生可用的相当低效力的抗生素
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    prevention 【名词】1. 预防;预防法 2. 阻止; 妨碍
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    prospect 前景【名词】1. 眼界,风景,景色;展望;(房屋的)方向; 2. 希望,前途;远见;预料; 3. 形势;情景,景色; 4. 可能成为顾客[应征者]的人; 5. 探矿有希望的地区; 6. 矿石样品; 7. 试掘;【地质学;地理学】勘探
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    public health 公共卫生
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    public health concern 公共健康问题
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    quote 【及物动词】1. 引述(他人文章);引证,举(例); 2. 用引号把…括起来 3. 【商业】喊(价),报(价),开(价);给…估价为; 【名词】1. 引用句,引文; 2. 引号; 3. 报价,估价表
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    rely on 依靠; 依赖
  • reproduce 复制
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    resistance 【名词】1. 阻力; 抵抗,反抗 2. 抵抗能力; (对疾病的)抵抗力;(物质的)耐力 3. 【电学】阻抗;电阻器
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    resistance mechanism 耐药机制
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    resistant 【形容词】抵抗的;耐久的,耐药的 【名词】耐药性;抵抗者;防染剂,防腐剂
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    resistant bacteria 耐药性细菌
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    resistant to antibiotics 对抗生素产生抗药性
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    rights [法] 权利;权限;权益 [All rights reserved] 版权所有
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    scaling 缩放; [口腔] 刮牙术
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    setting 【名词】1. 设置; 设定; 安装 2. 环境;背景; 布置
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    sobering new development 令人深省的新发展
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    sobering news 重大的新闻
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    specter 阴霾; 幽灵
  • spur 支线
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    stewardship 管理工作
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    strain 【生物学】 品系,系;菌株;变种【物理学】变形,应力 【1名词】1. 张力;负担; 2. 扭筋,脱臼 3.【2名词】血统,家世;族,种; 2. 性格,倾向
  • straining 紧张
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    strategy 战略【名词】1. 战略(学); 2. 策略,作战方针
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    superbug 超级细菌
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    superbug strain 超级细菌菌株
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    suppress 抑制【及物动词】1. 镇压,压制;扑灭(火等); 2. 止住,忍住(泪,欲望等);隐瞒(证据等); 3. 禁止(书等的)发卖,禁止发行;删掉
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    transmission 传染; 传送
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    transmit 传输【及物动词】1. 传送,寄,送(信、货等); 2. 送达,传达(命令、话等);透射(光),传导(热等),传声;【无线电】发报; 3. 留传(财产、称号等); 4. 遗传,传染(疾病等);【不及物动词】发射信号;发报
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 美国疾病预防控制中心◆【略】CDC
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    untreatable 无法医治的;不可治愈的
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    very frightening prospect 很骇人的前景
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    very high mortality rate 非常高的死亡率
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    virus 病毒【名词】1. 病毒 2. (病毒引起的)病毒病 3.毒液; 恶意,恶毒 4.计算机病毒
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    Washington 华盛顿 (特指华盛顿的政治圈)◆ Washington, D.C. (District of Columbia)
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    widespread 广泛【形容词】普遍,广为流传,普及,广,大规模
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    Zika virus 茲卡(Zika)病毒
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    zoonotic 人畜共患
Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615