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Could Polio Virus Fight Brain Cancer?


CBS This Morning - May 16, 2016 脊髓灰质炎病毒抗癌疗法获FDA突破性疗法资格。 FDA grants breakthrough status to polio virus cancer treatment.

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Norah O'Donnell, Anchor, CBS This Morning: Cancer specialists are carefully watching a promising new treatment for a deadly type of brain cancer. It uses the polio virus. As we first told you last week, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) just granted the treatment "breakthrough" status. That means clinical trials can move more quickly than usual. Scott Pelley and 60 Minutes have been following the trials of Duke University for two years, tracking several of the study's participants.
Scott Pelley, Correspondent, CBS 60 Minutes: Dr. Fritz Andersen showed us the results in another patient: himself. He's a retired cardiologist and at age 70, he became the second person in the polio trial...(FA: This is the fairly sizable temporal tumor, which means...)...What we see right here. On the left is his tumor before treatment [and] on the right, a hairline scar where it used to be. That was nearly three years ago. Do you consider yourself cured or do you call it "remission"?
Dr. Fritz Andersen: I feel it is a cure and I live my life that way.
NO: Our Dr. David Agus is one of the world's leading cancer experts. He's in Los Angeles. David, good morning!...(DA: Good morning, Norah!)...It was a great report last night. Explain how this therapy works.
Dr. David Agus, Director, USC Norris Westside Cancer Center: It's pretty wild! Polio virus can infect a sensor - a receptor on cells - that's present in brain cancer. So, they inject it into the brain, and then it goes in the cells and it kills some of the cells, but most importantly, it wakes up the immune system. You can see in the graphic here, they actually took out the part of the polio virus that causes all the debilitating parts of polio, and replaced it with a cold virus. So, this polio virus construct - the reengineered one - doesn't harm normal cells. It's just turned on by the biochemistry of the cancer cells to be able to kill them, but the key is the immune system coming in. It's a dramatic advance in these cancers that literally, people would live for weeks after they failed standard treatment.
NO: Now, it wasn't just the polio virus that was needed though, right? You had to combine it with chemo[therapy].
DA: Well, what the data show is that the polio virus alone works in many, if not most, patients. But sometimes, the cancer comes back. And then, when you add chemotherapy - and this is chemotherapy they have already seen before - you get a dramatic response. So somehow, that polio virus reawakened the cells to respond to this chemotherapy, and they went back into remission in some of the patients. It doesn't work in everybody, but again, this is a deadly cancer that uniformly, unfortunately, will kill patients, and the results have been dramatic thus far.
Charlie Rose, Anchor, CBS This Morning: So, what other cancers might it be applicable to?
DA: Well, this sensor for the polio virus, is present on breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancers, pancreatic cancers, and work is ongoing now in the laboratory to see if it can actually work in those cancers outside of the brain. You know, the brain is unique, right, in that you can inject it into the cancer, and it's really in one special spot. Other cancers spread throughout the body, so it's not yet known whether it will work, but certainly encouraging data are there.
Gayle King, Anchor, CBS This Morning: So, the FDA has now given it something called "breakthrough" status, which means what exactly to when it will actually be on the market?
DA: So, "breakthrough" status is when a drug is significantly better than what's out there to treat that stage of a disease. And in this case, what it means is the trial's going to expand to about 40 centers and treat hundreds of people, and if that works, which is called a "Phase II trial", then it may go right for FDA approval, and hopefully be on the market. But, it's going to expand across the country now, and that's certainly encouraging for anybody with this horrible disorder called "glioblastoma brain cancer"...(CR: Can you call it a cure?)...I don't think so. And again, we're very reticent to use that word in my business, but there are people who've received this who have these dramatic responses, and then recurred. And so, in my business, you know, "cure" equals 10 [or] 20 years without the disease coming back. Every day we offer somebody hope and quality of life with an advanced cancer is, to me, a blessing. And so, I just hold my hat on that. "Cure" is something we don't even want to talk about at the present time.
GK: It does sound promising, and if anything, it gives people hope. We're always glad to see that. Thank you very much, Dr. David Agus! And we should mention that the Duke scientists are investors in the company created to market this treatment, and that is not unusual.

  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    "breakthrough therapy" designation 美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)新的"突破性疗法"资格认定◆ Food and Drug Administration
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    across the country 全国范围
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    administration 【名词】1. 管理,经营;行政 2. 行政机关,局[处、署];(A- 主美)政府; 3. 给与;施行; 4. 给药,(药的)服法; 5. 【军事】后方勤务; 6. 【法律】施行,执行
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    advanced cancer 晚期癌
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    aging 老化【及物动词】衰老,老龄化,时效,老龄,增龄,陈酿,老年
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    anchor 【名词】1. 锚;新闻主播 2. 桩; 支架; 依靠; 【不及物动词】1. 抛锚; 2. 停泊;固定; 【及物动词】1. 抛锚泊(船); 2. 把…固定住
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    applicable 适用【形容词】1. (规则)可适用的,能应用的; 2. 合适的,适当的 (to)
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    approval 批准【名词】1. 赞成,同意; 2. 批准;认可
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    biochemistry 生物化学
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    blessing 祝福【名词】1. 赐福;祝福; 2. 【宗教】饭前[饭后]祷告; 3. 应允,纵容; 4. 幸事; 5. (委婉语)责备
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    brain 大脑【名词】1. 脑,(pl.)脑髓;(俚语)计算机;(导弹的)制导系统; 2. (常 pl.)智力,智能,智慧,脑力;头脑; 3. (口语)聪明人;(口语)(pl.)智囊,出谋划策者
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    brain cancer 脑癌;恶性脑肿瘤
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    breakthrough 突破;突破性进展
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    breast 乳腺癌【名词】1. 乳房;(比喻)营养的来源; 2. 胸;胸脯,胸膛;胸口;胸怀,心情; 3. (山)腹;(衣服的)胸部; 4. (扶拦、梁等的)下侧;(器物的)侧面;窗腰,窗下墙;炉胸;【矿物】工作面;【造船】中央系索
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    breast cancer 乳腺癌◆【略】BRCA
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    cancer 癌症【名词】1. 癌症;癌(瘤),肿瘤; 2. 弊病;社会恶习; 3. (the C-)【天文学】巨蟹座;巨蟹宫
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    cancer cell 癌细胞
  • cancer center 癌症中心
  • cancer expert 癌症专家
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    cancer specialist 肿瘤学专家
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    cardiologist 心脏病学家;心血管病医师
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    cell 细胞【名词】单元格,电池,牢房,单元,胞,手机,小区
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    chemotherapy 化学疗法;化疗◆【同】chemotherapeutic therapy
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    clinical 临床【形容词】疗效,临床医学
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    clinical trial 临床试验
  • cold virus 感冒病毒
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    combining 结合【及物动词】1. 使结合,合并; 2. 兼备,兼有(各种性质等); 3. 使化合; 【不及物动词】1. 联合,合并,合作,配合,协力; 2. 化合; 【名词】(美口)1. (政治上的)联合; 2. 联合企业[工厂],综合工厂; 3. 联合收割机(=combineharvester); 4. (美口)组合艺术; 【及物动词】用联合收割机收割(庄稼)
  • company-created 公司创建
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    construct 构造;设计;建造
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    correspondent 通讯记者【名词】通信者;通讯员;【商业】外地客户,外地代理店
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    cure 【名词】1. 治疗;治愈,[临床] 疗法 2. 治疗用剂;(有疗效的)药 3. (橡胶的)硫化,固化 4. (鱼等)用腌、熏、晒、烤等加工处理【及物动词】1. 治愈,治疗 2. 消除,改正;矫正
  • deadly cancer 致命癌症
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    deadly type of brain cancer 致命型脑癌
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    debilitate 【及物动词】使虚弱,使衰弱
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    director 主管【名词】1. 指挥者,监督人,管理人; 总监;院长;所长;主任 2.理事,董事;经理 3. 【戏剧】导演【音乐】指挥 4. 引向器; 指示器; 导向偶极子
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    disease 【名词】1. 病,疾病;【植物】病害 2. (精神等的)病态,弊病 3. (酒等的)变质;(食物等的)腐败
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    disorder 障碍【名词】1. 无秩序,混乱,杂乱;不合手续; 2. 骚乱,纷扰; 3. 小病,(身心机能的)失调; 4. 【化学】无序; 【及物动词】1. 扰乱,使混乱; 2. 使(身心等)失调,使(神经等)错乱
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    dramatic advance 显著的治疗进展
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    dramatic response 显著的治疗反应
  • drug administration 药品监督管理; 给药; 服药
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    drugged 【及物动词】用药麻醉;使服药;使服毒品
  • Extracting Microarray Gene Expression Patterns and Identifying co-expressed Genes 提取微阵列基因表达模式和确认共表达基因◆【略】EPIG
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    fairly sizable temporal tumor 相当大的颞叶肿瘤
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    glioblastoma 胶质母细胞瘤; 成胶质细胞瘤; 恶性胶质瘤
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    glioblastoma brain cancer 脑胶质母细胞瘤
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    grant 【及物动词】1. 许可,承认; 2. 授与,让渡,转让 【名词】1. 许可;答应;承认; 2. 授与,让渡;转让证书; 3. 授给物,转让权;补助金
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    hairline scar 发际线疤痕
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    horrible disorder 可怕的疾病
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    immune 免疫【形容词】1. 免疫(性)的; 2. 有免疫力的,可避免的; 3. 免除(税等)的; 4. 不受影响的
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    immune system 免疫系统
  • immunosuppressive chemotherapy 免疫抑制性化疗
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    infect 【及物动词】1. 【医学】传染,侵染,感染; 2. 使受影响,感染; 3. 使腐化
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    inject 注入【及物动词】1. 注入,注射; 2. 注满; 3. 插入(意见等); 4. 把…射入(轨道); 5. 【机械工程】喷射,引射 local transmission
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    investor 投资者【名词】1. 投资者; 2. 授权者; 3. 包围者,围攻者
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    it may go right for FDA approval 可能会直接申请FDA批准
  • known cure 已知的治疗
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    laboratory 实验室【名词】1. 实验室,化验室,研究室; 2. 炉房; 3. 化学工厂;药厂; 4. 实验课
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    literally 【副词】1. 照字义;逐字地 2. 实际地;确实地 3. [口语]差不多;简直
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    lung 肺癌【名词】1. 肺脏,肺; 2. (无脊椎动物的)呼吸器官; 3. 辅助呼吸的装置
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    lung cancer 肺癌
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    minutes 备忘录,笔记;(pl.)(会议)记录
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    new treatment 新的治疗方法
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    normal cell 正常细胞
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    not unusual 不在少数
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    on the market 出售
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    one of the world's leading cancer experts 世界一流的肿瘤专家之一
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    pancreatic 胰腺【形容词】胰(腺)的
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    pancreatic cancer 胰腺癌
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    participant 参与者【名词】与会者,嘉宾,参赛者
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    Phase II clinical trial II期临床试验
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    polio 小儿麻痹症【名词】脊髓灰质炎◆ poliomyelitis
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    polio virus 脊髓灰质炎病毒
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    polio virus construct 脊髓灰质炎病毒建构体
  • promising 【形容词】有前途的;有希望的;有指望的
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    promising new treatment 有希望的新疗法
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    prostate 【名词, 形容词】【解剖学】前列腺; 前列腺的
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    prostate cancer 前列腺癌
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    quality of life 生活的质量◆【略】QoL
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    receptor 受体;接受器;感觉器官
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    recur 重演【不及物动词】1. (问题、困难等)再发生;(疾病等)复发;来来去去,翻来覆去; 2. 回想;回头讲; (思想等)重新浮现在心上; 3. 【数学】递归,循环; 4. (罕用语)倚赖,求助,借助
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    reengineer 重新构建; 基因改造
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    remission 1. 缓解;(症状等的)逐渐消失 2. 宽恕;豁免
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    reticent 沉默【形容词】沉默的;爱缄默的;有保留的,含蓄的
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    retire 退休【不及物动词】1. 后退,退却;(部队等主动)撤退;退去,离开; 2. 退隐,退休,退职,退役,告退; 3. 就寝,去睡觉; 4. (浪等)向后退,(海岸等)缩进;【及物动词】1.【军事】(令)撤退; 2. 收回(纸币等); 3. 使退职,使告退
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    rights [法] 权利;权限;权益 [All rights reserved] 版权所有
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    scar 刀疤【1名词】1. 创伤;伤痕;疤;痕迹; 2. (比喻)(精神上或内心的)创伤; 3.【植物;植物学】叶柄痕;瘢痕; 4. (金属等材料表面的)斑疤;痕;【及物动词】1. 使留伤痕; 2. (比喻)使留痕迹;弄丑;【不及物动词】长疤;结疤;成疤,(伤口)愈合;【2名词】1. 砏岩,露岩;断崖;峭壁; 2. (海中的)孤岩;暗礁
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    scientist 科学家
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    sensor 传感器【名词】【自动化】感受器;传感器;灵敏元件,控制仪板上显示温度、辐射量等变动的装置
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    significantly 显著【副词】明显,大大,显着,大幅,大幅度,极大
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    specialist 专家◆【略】GP◆【参考】general practitioner
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    standard treatment 标准治疗
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    standards 标准【名词】1. 标准,水准,规格,模范; 2. 旗;军旗,队旗;【徽章】标帜,标记;旗标,象征; 3.【植物;植物学】旗瓣; 4. 金[银]的纯度标准;(硬币的)法定纯度比例; 5. (度量衡的)原基;原器; 6. (英国)(小学的)学年,年级; 7. 直立支柱;灯台;烛台,电杆,垂直的水管(电管)
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    temporal 【形容词】1. 暂时的;时间的 2. 【解剖学】颞部的 3. 世俗的 4. 【语法学】(表示)时间的,时态的
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    therapy 疗法;疗效
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    treatment 【名词】1. 治疗;疗法;疗程 2. 对待;处理 3.评述
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    tumor 肿瘤;肿块;赘生物
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    uniformly 均匀【形容词】1. (形状、性质等)一样的,同一的;一致的;相同的; 2. 一贯不变的;始终如一的; 3. 规格一致的,均匀的,齐一的;【副词】-ly
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    unique 独特的
  • United States Food and Drug Administration approval 美国食品药品监督管理局批准◆【略】FDA
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    virus 病毒【名词】1. 病毒 2. (病毒引起的)病毒病 3.毒液; 恶意,恶毒 4.计算机病毒
  • Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615
    wording 措辞【名词】措词,字眼,写法,提法,用语,字样,字句,字词
Sound e31a43d441998f862b764d17930467a5a23de45c433219259bed5eb42e3a7615